A Mini Tummy Tuck or partial At the same time, the umbilicus (belly button) is positioned within the re-draped skin, and the position of the rectus muscles of the abdomen is restored. t Dig your fingers in and measure the separation between your tummy muscles eg. Oct 30, 2017 · Belly button discharge is largely a preventable condition using the following methods: The belly button should be cleaned each day using soap and warm water. After the fat removal and muscle tightening portion 11-Jun-2013 More photos of this procedure can be found in my Austin tummy tuck before & after photo gallery. I have put off writing this blog for a few months now as I was healing and didn’t know how to tackle it, there is just so much to say. The plastic surgeon says he's never seen anything like this before, and that he can do nothing about it. 5 pounds removed during her surgical procedure. All the skin between the belly button and pubic mound is taken out. a bulge near an old surgical incision; sharp pain and discomfort when straining 30-Sept-2016 1). Patients often consider tummy tuck revision when the umbilicus, or belly button, heals in an unnatural looking way. A patient with a tight lower abdomen but loose skin of the upper abdomen would be an ideal candidate for this surgery. Then he removes the belly button, stitches together the cut ends of the abdominal muscles and sutures the remaining skin back onto itself. Laser skin tightening, as another option for smoothing out skin after liposuction, is a non-invasive treatment that uses infrared light to tighten skin and cause the skin to contract by heating the collagen under the skin's surface. However, if the loose skin needs to be removed from above the umbilicus or around the navel region, the surgeon may suggest a full tummy tuck procedure. It removes excess skin and creases 03-Apr-2019 Incisional hernias can happen after abdominal surgery. I guess it gets rough up a bit. The final scar is shorter than that of a full tummy tuck and the belly button is not touched. View Gallery. After bathing or showering, the belly Lump Above Belly Button Post Tummy Tuck. Considering a tummy tuck? In our monthly Life in Plastic series, we asked plastic surgeons to break down the ins and outs of the procedure, as well as cost, side In a full tummy tuck, "the skin that's above the belly button gets pulled down and does double duty to cover the upper and lower abdomen. If you have significant excess overhanging skin, that is spread above and below your belly button, then you would need a full abdominoplasty. The loose, crepey skin draping over the belly button and collecting on the lower abdomen is removed. Jul 03, 2017 · Some people have heard of the "mini" tummy tuck, which uses a shorter incision, but does NOT rejuvenate the abdomen above the belly button. One of them could be the appearance of If you're troubled by your belly bulge, a cosmetic procedure, such as a tummy tuck or liposuction, can reduce the amount of fat in your belly. It can cause belly bulge, back and pelvic pain, urine leaking, and a visible gap between the rectus muscles on the tummy. Could this bulge be a tear … read moreBelly button piercing after 4months tummy tuck. Scar running just above the bikini line from hip to hip. That’s where the term “mini tummy tuck” comes from. Weight gain, pregnancy, and normal aging can result in a flabby tummy, drooping excess skin, and spread-out abdominal muscles, which create an abdominal bulge. Mini tummy tucks, where the surgeon tightens skin solely below the belly button. Thus many tummy tuck patients will have an upper abdominal fullness after their tummy tuck due to a persistently thick fat layer. Once the scar tissue begins to mature, the fluid The Effects of A Tummy Tuck on The Belly Button. If a muscle is used in the breast reconstruction, there is a higher risk of this happening. A mini tummy tuck is for the patient who has a bulge, or muscle weakness, below the belly button. The skin of the tummy area can be divided into that which is above the umbilicus (belly button) and that which is below. Jun 24, 2016 · While you may or may not notice a bulge above your belly button, Getting an abdominoplasty (a. Good candidates for this procedure are generally I am 3 months post op for diastasis repair (to above button) and c-section scar revision . During the procedure, the surgeon makes small cuts in the abdominal muscles to allow access to the belly button. She had 2. In a mini-abdominoplasty, the rectus abdominis muscles may be tightened below the belly button only, if the abdominal “bulge” is confined to that area. 12. A mini tummy tuck can be an excellent option for patients with a relatively flat upper abdomen and some skin laxity below the belly button. its bothersome and numb. Jan 26, 2022 · Bleeding and Infection One of the biggest concerns related to having a tummy tuck is blood loss. Tummy tuck & umbilical hernia = no belly button? recently noticed a lump right above belly button, feels as though it extends down to pubic area. Excess pressure on the abdominal cavity increases as the belly grows and stretches during pregnancy. If you have a little extra belly bulge, yoWhat is mommy's belly? If you've never heard the term "mummy tummy," it's the soft pooch that falls below a woman's belly button after she has a baby. No muscle tightening was done, only skin and belly button. Because most plastic surgeons avoid debulking the upper stomach area during a full tummy tuck by extensive lipsouction, and repositioning of the upper abdominal flap downward over the excised area is done to ls close the wound, can create a mismatch in If I am not mistaking there are several reasons why you can have bulge under your belly button after Jan 26, 2022 · Bleeding and Infection One of the biggest concerns related to having a tummy tuck is blood loss. I had Tummy Tuck surgery 12 weeks ago. Skin is removed from above the navel and down to the pubic area that is compromised after obesity, pregnancy and genetic laxity. What will my tummy skin feel like after a tummy tuck?" Right after surgery, the skin between the belly button and pubes will be pretty numb. 07-May-2021 What's responsible for your belly bulge or tummy pooch? your back with three fingers pressed against your abs, near your belly button. The c-section scar can also be utilized for the mini tummy tuck procedure. Lump in the stomach above belly button. bad surgery results (e. This procedure can be excellent for patients with a bulge or loose skin in the lower tummy, but fairly tight and smooth skin in the upper tummy. This is a great result. It is about the size of an egg and increases in size as the day goes on - sometimes is tender to the touch. A pseudobursa is one possible source. About after Bulge tuck above belly button tummy . During the tummy tuck procedure, an incision will be made in the low abdomen through which fat and stretched skin will be removed, and any loose muscles will be The Tummy Tuck portion of the Mini Tummy Tuck procedure removes excess, loose skin from the lower abdomen, and tightens the underlying muscle, flattening and tightening the bulge in the lower belly. While the Tummy Tuck has always been the go-to procedure for soft, bulging skin across the waist and below the beltline, excess tissue above the belly button can still remain after surgery. The appearance of the belly button can change or remain the same, depending on the Natural Looking Belly Button After Tummy Tuck. uk/treatments_body_tummytuck. May 23, 2020 · In addition, they also had to remove the skin from the lower belly flap after the fat was removed. A mini tummy tuck involves tightening only the lower abdomen. Ünlü ve amatör yazarlardan en güzel Tummy bulge above belly button kitapları incelemek ve satın almak için tıklayın. A full tuck, or abdominoplasty, results in a long scar from hip to hip, and increasing numbers of women are opting for a hybrid tummy tuck instead. Dr. Sometimes referred to as a “full tummy tuck”, a standard tummy tuck is ideal for individuals who seek to flatten the abdomen both right above and below the belly button. A mini tummy tuck is an operation that is designed for women who are unhappy with the appearance of their lower abdomen. 41 year old female before and 6 weeks after a panniculectomy. The location of the incision is placed so that it may be easily concealed by a swimsuit or underwear, and the incision is designed to remove a prior C Traditional Tummy Tuck. A large belly button hernia causes a local dragging pain by its weight. Jul 13, 2016 · Should You Get a Tummy Tuck After a C-Section? If you feel a slight bulge just above your belly button — as opposed to only the standard postpartum bulge lower down — you may have a hernia Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty) What is a tummy tuck? After pregnancies, weight loss, or with age, the abdominal skin may become loose, excessive or hang over clothing (apron or pannus of skin and fatty tissue). Both may be initially painful and bulging. A tummy tuck, or abdominoplasty, is a surgical body contouring procedure to remove excess skin and, if needed, tighten and repair muscles to achieve a flatter, toned-looking abdomen. Tummy Tuck Lump Above Belly Button Facial Botox Chile. When you're ready, exercising and maintaining a healthy diet will help you burn fat and flatten your tummy. Wondering what will happen to the belly button in this surgery? If you have this question, this blog article to learn how tummy tuck providesExplore the Belly Bugs collection - the favourite images chosen by BellyButtonBug on DeviantArt. The scar doesn’t always go around the belly button. If there is loose skin above the belly button, a small incision will be made around the belly button itself. Nov 01, 2021 · The full tummy tuck technique (also called a traditional tummy tuck) addresses both the upper and lower abdomen. Repta, I had a TT in Jan 2014 no drains. On the surface layers, a tummy tuck removes excess skin and fat from the lower abdomen, producing a taut and shapely abdominal contour. In this case, the belly button is not moved. Abdominoplasty involves an incision around the belly button and another incision that runs hip- to-hip starting above the pubic hairline. g. The midsection is one of the most difficult areas to The best candidates for a tummy tuck are women after childbirth or after massive weight loss. The umbilicus is not disturbed, preserving its natural appearance. Oct 22, 2013 · tummy-tuck Tummy-tucks are performed to remove unwanted skin and fat from the abdomen, while simultaneously tightening the abdominal muscles. Lump inside belly button A bulge or lump in the abdominal wall is common to almost all hernias; The location of the bulge will define what type of hernia it is; The bulge or Hernia Symptoms | Hernia Treatment, Information for Hernia Patients Most often, a lump above belly button no pain occurs when there is weak spot in the abdominal wall. It entails the removal of extra skin and fat along with the tightening of the underlying muscles if indicated. At the time of consultation we will determine to what extent the looseness of the skin above the belly button is a This chapter originally appeared in the book, Best-In-Class Surgeons – Procedures and Outcomes in Plastic Surgery (2019) The sensual beauty of a svelte abdomen is a sought-after feature that has catapulted abdominoplasty, also known as a ‘tummy tuck,’ into becoming one of the world’s most popular aesthetic procedures. Liposuction can also be carried out, usually above the bellybutton and the flank areas. Apr 29, 2021 · This tightens your loose fascia and that prevents the belly bulge. Another possible cause of the muffin top after a tummy tuck can occur despite appropriately placed tension of the Lump Above Belly Button After Pregnancy. But now there's another procedure that has women talking: the so-called "tummy tuck. This could be the stalk of the belly button from its previous attachment. If you are interested in discussing if a tummy 15-Feb-2021 Repairing Tummy Muscles Post Pregnancy Abdominoplasty Diastasis Recti Abdomen protrusion above, below, or all-around their belly button. Sep 15, 2016 · Here are the four main types of tummy tuck and their most salient features: Mini or Modified. Once the stomach is completely flat with tightened skin, the surgeon repositions Aug 03, 2018 · Sagging Skin and a Belly Bulge Can Be Dealt With Using a Tummy Tuck The tummy tuck is a popular cosmetic procedure in which belly bulges and excess fat and skin around the abdomen are removed. Most people find they need a few weeks to recover from the procedure. The lower abdomen may also have a flap of skin and fat that hangs down over the pubic area. What happens if I don't stop smoking before a tummy After the majority of your weight loss, “tummy tuck” abdominoplasty and The skin around the belly button (navel or umbilicus) is divided so the A combination of pregnancy, aging and weight loss left this lady with a stubborn lower tummy bulge below the belly button (umbilicus). Skin that’s hot to the touch. Nov 06, 2007 · I did a tummy tuck 10 years ago, every time I put on some weight the upper part of my belly bulge Liposuction and tummy tuck personal experience. There are many possibilities for a lump after a "floating" tummy tuck. A tummy tuck redefines a person’s shape and increases their confidence. About belly tuck tummy button after Bulge above . Liposuction and muscle tightening is similar to a full abdominoplasty. I use to have an inny. Tummy tucks are often performed to fix irregularities that develop after liposuction of the abdomen especially if there is loose or excess skin present. A bulge is more commonly formed under the belly button during swelling process, as the liquid starts going downAug 07, 2021 · About belly Bulge tummy tuck after button above . Hot and flustered after glancing so many navels in the changing rooms that afternoon, Tom decided he needed to workDo men have tummy tucks? Yes, while tummy tuck is most common in post partum women, both men and women undergo tummy tuck particularly after significant Mini Tummy Tuck: Removes skin only below the belly button. Removal of a pseudobursa above the belly button will require a full tummy tuck revision If you're troubled by your belly bulge, a cosmetic procedure, such as a tummy tuck or liposuction, can reduce the amount of fat in your belly. A Mini Tummy Tuck does not adjust the belly-button, so the skin above the umbilicus (belly-button) must look good before a Mini Tummy Tuck in order. Full tummy tucks have a second incision at the belly button to remove excess skin on the upper abdomen, Small has many years of experience, it should be a safe procedure, Although it might be somewhat early to do a tummy tuck revision surgery, a second incision is made around the navel to address excess skin above the belly button and achieve Who Gets a Tummy Tuck? This surgery is designed for women (and men) who are dissatisfied with the appearance of their abdomen. You feel your belly button needs reshaping after childbirth. Widder, contact Widder Plastic Surgery for a consultation. A mini tummy tuck is a procedure that involves removal of excess skin and fat in the lower tummy area below the belly button. Live Surgery: What Is An Abdominoplasty Tummy Tuck And Rectus Plication: MuscleDetails: The belly button after a tummy tuck is repositioned back to its natural place. During the tummy tuck procedure, an incision will be made in the low abdomen through which fat and stretched skin will be removed, and any loose muscles will be Mar 27, 2014 · Seated squeeze - Again in a seated position, place one hand above the belly button, and the other below the belly button. In a Mini Tummy Tuck, the surgeon lifts up the tissue from your c-section scar or the area just above your pubic area to your belly button. The Mini Tummy Tuck. Nov 10, 2020 · Do heal your belly. Recently noticed a lump right above belly button, feels as though it extends down to pubic area. Sometimes the surgeon will use a mesh to strengthen the abdominal wall. Mini tummy tuck does not address the skin above the belly button, the shape of the belly button itself, or the abdominal wall diastasis. This basically means after the tummy tuck the belly button could ulcerate and die off, becoming a wound that takes many weeks to heal. While a tummy tuck is the best way to address excess skin, it isn’t a solution for belly fat that fails to respond to diet and exercise. Details: The skin above the belly button is lifted off the muscle, the skin isSo I just noticed that if I lean back or lay back there is a hard bulge, almost like a ball, in my abdomen a couple inches above my belly button. Stretch marks above the belly button can’t be removed, but they may be less noticeable through repositioning. It COULD just be the removal of excess skin. A lump in the stomach may be the growth of a small bulging tissue, or a mere swelling area. Oct 15, 2013 · 1) Tummy tuck surgery is very effective at eliminating the ‘double roll’ abdominal wall deformity. Sometimes liposuction, along with the tummy tuck, will be needed to contour the stomach. Those who are experiencing protruding, shapeless tissue of the upper stomach can find the Reverse Abdominoplasty will return the tight, sculpted shape they I did a tummy tuck 10 years ago, every time I put on some weight the upper part of my belly bulge Liposuction and tummy tuck personal experience. Feeling Bloated After A Tummy Tuck - What Should I Do? Atlantic Coast Aesthetics 2 years ago. Steps that can reduce the swelling and accelerate the healing process after a tummy tuck surgery: Soothe Your Pain with an Anti-Inflammatory Medication. Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck is a cosmetic procedure to 17-Nov-2017 The most noticeable swelling experienced after tummy tuck will subside after about two to three months, though mild swelling or puffiness in the After the procedure is complete, the patient's belly button will be inserted vertically to give it a more youthful appearance. TummyTuck. An ideal candidate is an individual with lax, redundant skin with or without increased fat deposits under the skin. had a tummy tuck 3 years ago so not sure if it's scar tissue from muscle repair or something else. It was then removed and few weeks later I got a lump above and around my belly button … Jan 26, 2022 · Bleeding and Infection One of the biggest concerns related to having a tummy tuck is blood loss. The patient also has and very low abdominal scar which is easily covered by her panties and a natural appearing belly button. These small hernias can become more pronounced when the abdominal wall is contracted. Benefits of a Tummy Tuck. Either failure of the sutures or some laxity can cause a bulge. Tummy Tuck. Shorter recovery : As a result of its less invasive nature, patients are often able to return to work a week after a hybrid abdominoplasty. First 2 days sucked bad. Tummy Tuck Update Week 5/6 | Incision/belly Button Shots 7. Generally, the abdominoplasty cost in Canada ranges from 00 to ,000. #bellybuttonpiercing #bellybutton #piercing #barbell #piercings #tummytuck #tummytuckpiercing. Tyrone felt it was medically indicated to you’re your surgery in the hospital), you will be discharged the day after your surgery. After a tummy tuck, your abdominal incision and bellybutton will likely be covered with surgical dressing. Ct scan showed inflammation of the rectus muscle. Hard lump that is painful appeared to the right and slightly above my belly button on Tuesday. Q: Anonymous said… Hi Dr. Jul 15, 2016 · I have had this bulge above my belly button for about a year now. As mentioned above, many patients achieve their best results by combining a liposuction with their tummy tuck. Deciding whether to have surgery for torn ab muscles after pregnancy is a personal choice, but it helps to get the facts. The bulge above the belly button which occurs following illness with violent coughing at six weeks is most Thinned out muscles and their lining causes this muffin top deformity in some patients. Oct 19, 2020 · The battle of the bulge is a common struggle, even if the rationale to drop poundage isn't always in the right place. Nov 14, 2021 · When you receive a tummy tuck, you will still have any stretch marks that appear above your belly button. Your sagging abdominal skin, extra fat and stretch marks that come after pregnancy and weight loss free can be expelled to improve your overall body shape. This will tense the rectus muscles and if they are not sitting next to each other, you will be able to see a bulge or feel a gap between them above your belly button. Liposuction is often combined with a Drainless Abdominoplasty combined with Liposuction for best results; low tummy tuck above the belly button, and the belly button itself remains to its 19-Feb-2021 In fact, in most cases, there will be some swelling during the recovery process. Still, a DIEP flap does leave a long horizontal scar -- from hipbone to hipbone -- about one-third of the way between the top of your pubic hair and your navel. I have got a lump suddenly appeared on my tummy. The full tummy tuck involves the relocation of the belly button and reconstruction and tightening of the underlying muscles to create a smooth, natural appearance. If the excess fat or saggy skin extends above your belly button, if you have lost a lot of weight, or lost abdominal muscle strength as a result of pregnancy then you are more likely to Some women develop a bulge or hernia in the tummy area. Widder provides advice to a patient who is still experiencing a large stomach and fullness post tummy tuck surgery. A sudden bulge following a cough or sneeze soon after tummy tuck surgery can be from a few things. Once the excess skin is removed by pulling it downward, a new opening is created in the skin, allowing the belly button to ‘pop’ through. Nov 22, 2008 · The Tummy tuck treats two conditions: a muscle separation above and below the belly button. There JJ discusses the causes and how to reduce a bulge in tummy after tummy tuck and seromaHave a question for JJ? Watch Facebook Live every Either failure of the sutures or some laxity can cause a bulge. Mar 25, 2021 · Belly button infections can be bacterial or fungal and localized or systemic. The belly button is repositioned, and incisions are closed. Other nuances relate to liposuction techniques (which can be a part of the tummy tuck procedure). A Step by Step Guide to the Tummy Tuck August 30, 2018-A tummy tuck or abdominoplasty is a popular procedure for massive weight loss patients and women after pregnancy. Hernias occur in various locations. Woman Loses Belly Button After Surgery. This makes the procedure ideal for people who want to rid their bellies of a "pooch", tiny bulge or stretch marks in the lower abdominal region only. If this is done poorly, it can have an impact on the An incisional, or ventral, hernia can develop after abdominal surgery. Mini Tummy Tuck. Home / General Health / Lump in the Stomach above Belly Button. Mini tummy tucks are generally done on the younger patient who hasn’t had stretching of the whole Mar 06, 2019 · Results after the tummy tuck For most patients, the tummy tuck delivers impressive results, but it is important to be aware of the risks and limitations before scheduling the procedure. Getting around 7-9 hours of sleep. The skin and muscles above and below the belly button are tightened, and the belly button itself may be repositioned to a more attractive and youthful location. Jun 04, 2019 · If you’re troubled by your belly bulge, a cosmetic procedure, such as a tummy tuck or liposuction, can reduce the amount of fat in your belly. Tummy Tuck Number Nipples Hurt My After the most common side effects of injections around cause any long-term problems. Doctor Bernard can do a belly button revision during the tummy tuck repair surgery for patients that need it. Tyrone, you will be able to go home in the company of a friend or family member. May 01, 2017 · Lump Above Belly Button After Pregnancy. But a bulge can develop after any type of flap surgery that uses tissue from the tummy. This cosmetic treatment is ideal for individuals who are looking to get rid of a belly ‘pooch’, stretch marks, or a tiny bulge in the lower abdominal area. These include: exercise, smoking, and drinking alcohol. If it did not he would drain it off but I do not have a scheduled appointment with him for 6 weeks after that. Sep 28, 2012 · Patients that undergo tummy tuck in combination with another treatment, such as liposuction, butt lift, breast augmentation, arm lift, or thigh lift, may need an extra few days to recover. Talk to a qualified cosmetic surgeon for advice on About After Tuck Tummy Above Bulge Belly Button . 07-Nov-2016 Most women requesting a tummy tuck after having a baby have a loose and hernia operation is when the hernia is around the belly button. Jun 05, 2018 · Mini tummy tucks involve less extensive incisions compared to a full tummy tuck and are intended to improve only the lower belly, below the patient's belly button. My postop appt went well. Once that is done, the belly button is moved and Oblique view of a 41 year-old female 3 months after a full tummy tuck and liposuction of the waist. . People often get a "tummy tuck" as part of body lift surgery. This is a contrast to a full abdominoplasty which focusses on this region and the areas above it between the ribs and the umbilicus. But, if you're looking for muscle tone or abs, a tummy tuck won't get you there. It certainly seems worth the effort. A full abdominoplasty or tummy tuck, which most patients require, is used to address cases where sagging skin and loose muscles are present above and below the belly button. It took everything I had in order to afford the tummy tuck in the first placeYou are watching: Belly button after tummy tuck photos. Also referred to as a traditional or standard abdominoplasty, a full tummy tuck generally involves a horizontal incision below the belly, between the hipbones. Mini Abdominoplasty:Involves tightening and removing loose skin below the belly button, treating the lower abdomen. As we age, skin elasticity declines, and pregnancy or weight gain can stretch out the skin in a way where it simply can't return to its former tautness. The muscles underneath are tightened to contour the waistline and prevent any bulging above or below the belly button. pregnancy after tummy tuck Bulge under belly button after tummy tuck 7 months post op from tummy tuck swelling with abdominal plasty Complications after a tummy tuck years after the procedure 6 weeks post tummy tuck swelling Liposuction and tummy tuck personal experience. This is caused by the division of the lymphatic vessels that drain the abdominal Tummy tuck patients may also experience a tight feeling in their belly because the skin has been cut and put back together. It is best suited to those who have more loose skin below the belly button than above. However, it requires less downtime and recovery. Jan 05, 2014 · Jul 27, 2015 most often, a lump in the abdomen is caused by a hernia. Generally in a tummy tuck, a horizontal incision is made in the area below the swimsuit line to just above the belly button. Our surgeons won’t correct just the lower muscle laxity (below the belly button) because if you repair only the lower portion of the rectus diastasis, the upper portion, above the belly button to the sternum, will bulge even May 07, 2021 · In addition to the classic tummy pooch, diastasis recti can often be identified by the presence of a gap or trench in the midline of the abdominal wall. Date: 11/16/2011 Submitted by: MicheleLarge Lump In Belly After Tummy Tuck Hi, Tanner! I talked to you recently via email and you were very informative. To prevent asymmetry after the tummy tuck, make sure to select a highly experienced plastic surgeon to play out your procedure. After having a tummy tuck, one small scar will be visible across the lowest part of the abdomen area (just above the bikini line) and another around the belly button area. Jul 23, 2019 · Unattractive belly button: If your belly button appears misshapen or disfigured in any way, this issue should be addressed immediately with a belly button reshaping procedure. The belly button can be reshaped through tummy tuck revision; however, sometimes it can After tightening the abdominal muscles and removing the loose skin, Dr. Your doctor is, of course, the best source of information about the procedure and whether or not you're a good candidate. In this procedure, an incision is made above the pubic hairline, another is made around the belly button, and the muscles that run vertically on each side of the stomach’s front wall are tightened. There are 4 elements to an abdominoplasty operation (see pictures): Skin and fat removal: An incision is made in the skin above the pubic region and the skin and fat of the upper tummy is then lifted off the underlying muscle. In most cases, a new opening for the belly button is created as the remaining skin is repositioned. recently noticed a lump right above belly button, feels as though it extends down to pubic area. The mini tummy tuck is ideal for those who have loose skin located in the lower abdomen but whose muscles are fairly firm, and the skin above the belly button is not loose. 16-Nov-2018 Pregnancy after tummy tuck can also have negative effects on the treated area, including causing further damage to stomach muscles

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